Citation Help!

Citing where you have found your information is the most important and possibly the most tiresome part of putting together any research paper. You will have to do this many times during your academic career. While creating citations is a complex process, this page should help you get started. If the answers to all your citation needs are not found here, visit the staff in one of the TVCC Writing Labs or use one of the website links at the bottom of this page.

What does it mean to cite a source?

Good question! As a college writer, you have an academic responsibility to support your claims with evidence. Much of this evidence, if not all, will be gathered from articles, books, journals, websites, or films that were created by another person. You must make clear in your own essay where you found your information by citing the author and the source you borrowed from.

Citation Styles

There are many different ways to cite your sources: MLA, APA, Chicago…the list goes on. You must follow one citation style throughout your paper. We use citation styles so that anyone reading your paper can quickly understand what type of source you read and efficiently find that source for themselves.

If you are writing a paper for a humanities class (English composition, literature, philosophy, foreign language, or art), you will use MLA citation. The MLA is a group of academics in the humanities known as the Modern Language Association.

If you are writing a paper for a social sciences class (psychology, sociology, nursing, criminal justice, education), you will use APA citation. The APA is a group of academics in the social sciences known as the American Psychological Association.

Types of Citations

An in-text citation lets the reader know which source and page you are quoting or paraphrasing from. In-text citations are included within sentences.

An end-text citation lets the reader know all of the publication information about the sources you cited in your essay. The end-text citations are listed on a separate page and attached to the end of your essay.

MLA Citation

The in-text citations in MLA style must reference the author and page number of the information you cite. They will look like this:

During industrialization, “appalling working and living conditions led to mounting discontent. Discontent led to dissent. Dissent led to activism” (Young 256).

The end-text citations in MLA style are listed on a page called Works Cited. The citations should be listed in alphabetical order, double-spaced, and every line of a citation after the first line should be indented (this is called a hanging indent).

A Book

Author’s Name. Title of Book. Edition. Publisher, Year.

Young, Ralph. Dissent: The History of an American Idea. New York University Press, 2015.

An Article in a Print Journal

Author’s Name. “Title of Article.” Journal Title, vol. #, iss. #, Mon. YYYY, location.

Davis, Brock, Ian A. Munn, James E. Henderson, and Bronson K. Strickland. “Economic Tradeoffs of Managing for Timber Production or Wildlife Habitat.” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 81, iss. 8, Sept. 2017, pp. 1363–1371.

An Article in a Print Newspaper

Author’s Name. “Title of Article.” Newspaper Title, DD Mon. YYYY, page+.

Streng, Nic. “Student Protest.” The Argus Observer, 17 Jan. 2018, p. A1+.

An Article in a Print Magazine

Author’s Name. “Title of Article.” Magazine Title, DD Mon. YYYY, pages.

Van der Wouden, Yael. “On (Not) Reading Anne Frank.” The Sun, Dec. 2017, pp. 20-23.

Article on the Web

Author’s Name. “Title of Work.” Title of Web Site, sponsoring organization, DD Mon. YYYY, location.

Brasch, Sam. “Concerns Grow That Infections From 'Zombie Deer' Meat Can Jump To Humans.” NPR, NPR, 17 Jan. 2018, www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/01/17/578582087/concerns-grow-that-infected-zombie-deer-meat-can-jump-to-humans.

Article in an Online Database

Author’s Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. #, iss. #, year, pages. Title of Database, location.

Karr, Valerie L. and Courtney L. Weida. “Superhero Comic Books as Frameworks of Inclusivity and Advocacy for Youth with Disabilities.” Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education, vol. 30, 2012, pp. 10-31. Complementary Index, jcrae.org/index.html.

A Video on the Web

Username. “Title of Video.” Name of Website, sponsoring organization, DD Mon. YYYY, location.

Vlogbrothers. “Towering Mountains of Ignorance.” YouTube, YouTube, 25 Jul. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3v3S82TuxU.

Film

Title of Film. Directed by Director’s Name, distributor, year.

Pray the Devil Back to Hell. Directed by Abigail E. Disney and Gini Reticker, Fork Films, 2008.

APA Citation

The in-text citations in APA style must reference the author, publication year, and page number of the information you cite. They will look like this:

Hooks (1994) argues, “Work by women of color and marginalized groups or white women (for example, lesbians, sex radicals), especially if written in a manner that renders it accessible to a broad reading public, is often de-legitimized in academic settings, even if that work enables and promotes feminist practice” (p. 63-64).

Interviews with LGBT students revealed that they often experienced “cognitive, social and emotional” isolation in school (Munoz-Plaza, Quinn and Rounds, 2002, p. 60).

The end-text citations in APA style are listed on a page called References. The citations should be listed in alphabetical order, double-spaced, and every line of a citation after the first line should be indented (this is called a hanging indent).

A Book

Author’s Name (Year). Title of Book (Edition). Location: Publisher.

Hooks, B. (1994). Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York, NY: Routledge.

An Article in a Print Journal

Author’s Name (Year, Month). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pages.

Munoz-Plaza, C., Quinn, S. C., and Rounds, K. A. (2002, April). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students: Perceived social support in the high school environment. High School Journal, 85(4), 52-63.

An Article in a Print Newspaper

Author’s Name (Year, Month DD). Title of article. Newspaper Title, page+.

Marrow, H. (2018, January 17). Student protest. The Argus Observer, p. A1+.

An Article in a Print Magazine

Author’s Name. (Year, Month DD). Title of article. Magazine Title Volume(Issue), pages.

Rosenberg, L. (2018, January). Searching for the dark. Scientific American 318(1), 51-57.

Article on the Web

Author’s Name. (Year, Month DD). Title of article. Website Title. Retrieved from location.

Wadman, M. (2017, October 6). Disturbing allegations of sexual harassment in Antarctica leveled at noted scientist. Science. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/.

Article in an Online Database

Author’s Name. Title of article. Title of Journal Volume(Issue), pages. DOI or URL of journal page.

Morsy, L. (2017). Mass incarceration and the achievement gap: the impact of imprisoned parents on children shows how criminal justice policy is education policy. The American Prospect 28(2), 12-15. Retrieved from http://prospect.org/.

A Video on the Web

Author’s name. (Year, Month DD). Title of video [Video file].Retrieved from location.

TED (2010, March 22). Science can answer moral questions: Sam Harris [Video file].Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/.

Film

Director’s name. (Role). (Year). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country: Distributor.

Klayman, A. (Director). (2011). Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry [Motion picture]. United States: Sundance Select.

Putting your Citation Page Together

Once you have created your citations, they must be listed in alphabetical order on your page. For each citation, the second and subsequent lines of the citation need to be indented. The page should be double-spaced. Here's an example in MLA style and in APA style.

For additional information or more complete citation examples, try this site, the citation generator here, or come check out the MLA handbook in the Library.